International Examples

The success of mobility management in the company is largely dependent upon the frame conditions that are stipulated by national and regional legislation, local politics and political programs on issues relating to traffic, the municipality and the environment.

Just one glance "across the border" can therefore show that the neighbour - or to what extent the neighbour - is having a better/more difficult time. Also by taking a glance at project-funding by the European Commission, a comparison of the national differences is significant. In order to employ the limited means of the move project economically, only a small selection of countries was made. A general comprehensive view of the basic conditions and examples (good and bad practice) are being investigated at present in a number of other European projects, in each of which several European countries are participating and being budgeted accordingly (e.g. MOSAIK, MOMENTUM, DANTE, etc.). The move project enjoyed a regular exchange of know-how with these projects and in the comparison between the different countries, it therefore limited itself mainly to the question of whether and to what extent the service-offer, developed within the scope of the project, basically appears transferable in conformity with European criteria.

Here, such aspects are concerned as the fiscal mileage reimbursement for business commuters (is the use of the car being funded?), the requirements for parking space management, the special offer of reduced annual tickets for the local public transport service (Job Tickets), the question of whether and to what extent employer participation - in the sense of adopting incentives towards choosing an environment-friendly means of transport - is evaluated by the tax authorities as a hidden salary payment (monetary advantage) and should thus be assessed as a taxable service, etc.. A large number of these aspects seem at first sight to concern traffic planning and traffic policy only very indirectly; however, they constitute decisive frame conditions in the everyday life of the commuter for deciding on his choice of transport facility.

For the study of the different countries four European states were chosen:

Thus a wide geographical scatter is given. In addition, a non-European example (California, USA) is integrated in the study as favourable possibilities for an exchange of know-how have resulted in other connections with this project.

The terms of reference consist in the relativisation or affirmation of the know-how gained in Germany within the scope of the pilot implementation of the move project, with regard to assessing whether the move concept is transferable.The assessment and form of presentation are geared to the needs resulting from setting up a user-oriented guide/manual on the move concept and not to the systematic approach of a scientific investigation conducted on a wide scale, offering exhaustive information. This restriction was alone also a result of the limited time and financial budget allocated to the move project, in which the systems development and pilot implementation for the specific case in question were of primary importance.

The information on the comparison between the different countries was gained in a secondary/analytical way, and by establishing direct contacts with specialists in the various countries. The exchange of know-how was also promoted by some international congresses at which the move project was presented (Nottingham, Bremen, Berlin). Finally, a regular exchange of know-how existed with the workgroup "Commuting" at the Städtenetzwerk Car Free Cities - Netzwerk für neue Mobilitätskultur (network for new mobility culture).

The information on California (USA) is largely based on personal talks with Jim Sims (Los Angeles) who, as director of the former Commuter Transportation Services (CTS) and today Director of the information centre of Southern California Ride-Share, has many years of experience and can assess the significance of the changes in legal frame conditions during the last four to five years very reliably. The presentation is made in the form of interviews, since in this way the subjective components of the assessments are accentuated. Finally it is not only a question of facts, but largely also evaluations with a view to future developments. The talks conducted with Jim Sims were prepared systematically. The interview was finally chosen as the form of presentation because it reads more easily than a strictly scientific study. The interview did not take place in this form.

As background information, an investigation in two parts is available on the position of the Transportation Demand Management (TDM) in the USA, which can be found in the brochure supplements:

Part 1 describes the structure of CTS Los Angeles as the oldest and largest agency world-wide for mobility management as it stood in 1993. Part 2 provides an assessment on its transferability to European conditions. The interview with Jim Sims represents Part 3, which treats the changes which have been made since 1993. Not only the frame conditions have changed; CTS also no longer exists in this known form. Its transition to the status of an authority within the frame of the Southern Californa Association of Governments (SCAG) is more than a formal one. It reveals perspectives for development which can be regarded as very informative for the European discussion on the topic of "mobility management in the company".


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